Neither individual, nor common human intelligence can
embrace in full the mysteries of existence, but it takes the divine wisdom in
homeopathic doses in the course of gradual development and refinement, and
learns by trial and error. This true and vivid thought of Hegoumenos Gennady
Eikalovitch is strongly confirmed by the discoveries of science in the 20th
century, which we wish to discuss here.
Until the beginning of this century, scientists in
general and astronomers in particular believed in infiniteness of the universe
in time and space. They admitted that some parts of the universe could change
(e.g. development of stellar systems), but considered the elementary particles,
which constitute matter, and the laws of physics as eternal.
This naive conception about the steady-state
‘eternity’ of the universe was rejected in the first half of the 20th
century. In 1913 astronomer V.I. Slipher, in performing spectral observation of
galaxies through a powerful telescope, found that all galaxies, irrespective of
the direction of observation, moved away from our solar system at high speed.
He also noted that this speed was proportional to the distance. In a word,
Slipher found that our universe expands, or inflates as a giant balloon. We
need to mention here, that galaxies are defined as multi-billion-star systems,
revolving around galaxy centers by the effect of the binding gravitational field.
For example, our solar system is located at the edge of a medium-size galaxy
called the Milky Way. Closest to us is a galaxy called Andromeda at a distance
of more than 2 million light years. The entire universe consists of billions of
galaxies of various sizes and shapes.
Slipher’s discovery of expanding universe shook
the world of scientists. The staggering consequences of this discovery for the
traditional science became obvious to everyone. If the world is expanding, then
at some moment in the past it was condensed in one point, and therefore it is
not eternal and not infinite. What force set this point to motion that
transformed it into this colossal universe? Many observatories around the world
immediately repeated spectral observations of distant galaxies. Slipher’s
conclusion was confirmed: the universe is expanding at an incredible speed. The
furthest spots of the universe fly away from us at about the speed of light.
Finally, it was calculated that our universe came into existence approximately
15 billion years ago, when a microscopic point blew out forcefully, emitting
radiation in all directions. The opinion of modern scientists is that neither
matter, nor time, nor space existed before this
explosion. While cooling down, the primary radiation began to concentrate into
atoms; the powers of nature, which subsequently became the laws of physics,
appeared at the same time. Later atoms started to cluster into gas clouds; the
gas clouds condensed into stars and stellar systems. This is the origin of the
universe in a couple of words. The term for it is ‘the Big
Bang.’ Is not this ‘bang’ described in the Bible when it tells us: "And
God said, Let there be light: and there was light" (Genesis 1:3).
Now it would be interesting to mention the sharp
scientific disputes ignited by Slipher’s discovery. Many scientists tried to
save the former theory of stability of the universe so earnestly as if they
were defending an unchangeable dogma. This dispute exposed the inherent human
prejudice and non-objectivity, which scientists have not less than religious
fanatics. There were attempts to refute the arguments of Slipher and his
adherents. But it was hard to cope with facts, because facts are stubborn. Even
Einstein, a prominent scientists and founder of contemporary physics, who
openly admitted the existence of God, disagreed with this new discovery about
the origin of the universe for 17 years. Once he even said, "It (the
expansion of the universe) irritates me... It seems senseless to accept this
possibility." Note the emotionalism of these words, so unsuitable for a
scientific discussion! Later, mathematician A. Friedman and scientist G.
Lemetres proved it to him that the solution concerning the expansion of the
universe was contained in his own formulae of the general theory of relativity.
Einstein finally agreed with the fact of the expanding universe in 1930 when he
personally visited the best-of-its-time observatory on Mount Wilson
Scientist E. Hubble (1889-1953) later worked much
in the area of measurement of galactic motion. His efforts helped to confirm
and clarify the previous conclusions. Today no one disputes the fact that the
universe is expanding.
Now we will discuss the method of measurement of
distant luminaries. Measurement of the speed of motion is based on the
principle of spectral comparison. It is known that many elements in
incandescent state emit light of a certain spectral type (specific alternations
of color and black lines). From an analysis of light, emitted by stars, it is possible
to determine the chemical composition of these stars. When
stars move toward us, then the spectral property of their emitted light shifts
to the ultra-violet color, while the shift of spectral emission toward the
infrared color (red shift) occurs when light bodies move away. A similar
change of sound frequency can be noticed when we hear a vehicle which comes
nearer and then pulls away from us: first we hear a higher, and then a lower
frequency of sound. Through spectral measurements of typical stellar light
emissions (e.g. sodium and hydrogen), scientists determine their speed in
relation to us. It turns up that the light that comes to us from distant light
systems is always characterized by red-shifted spectrum.
The theory of sudden origination of the universe
out of an immensely powerful superhigh-temperature bang also found its
confirmation in the following fact. In 1948 Russian scientist and US resident G. Gamov calculated that if the universe had
started to exist due to an explosion, then cooled traces of this bang had to be
traceable until this time as weak electromagnetic radiation, corresponding to
the temperature of 3 degrees above the absolute zero. He predicted that this
radiation had to be reaching us in perfectly uniform amounts from every
direction. Indeed, in 1965 scientists A. Penzias and R. Wilson found the
existence of background radiation, fully in concord with Gamov’s assumption.
This radiation is emitted by interstellar space irrespectively of luminous
celestial bodies. It is an ancient footprint of that powerful bang.
For us the believers these scientific discoveries
have a great religious and philosophic meaning. First, they confirm our faith
that the universe was created in time and out of nothing. They strengthen our
belief that only God is omnipotent, eternal and infinite. Anything else around
us is limited both in time and in space. Everything started to be due to the
Creator’s Will, and the same Will may cause everything
to return to non-existence where it originated from.
Second, we see that science in its long and windy
way does slowly but steadily come nearer to the truth. Therefore, a believer
should not keep away from science as from a hostile enemy. Its positive
achievements may enrich the religious understanding. For example, materialists
at the beginning of the 20th century wanted to crush religion with
the help of science. But new scientific discoveries broke the very platform
that the materialists rested on. It was found that matter does not exist as an
independent solid substance. It is only a temporary condensed state of energy,
of this mysterious force, originated somewhere beyond the boundaries of the
physical universe. Bearing the former errors in mind, modern science should
become more modest in its fundamental statements. May the minor human mind bow
to the incomprehensible wisdom of the Maker!
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