The prophets were people who, under the inspiration of the
Holy Spirit, prophesied, that is, foretold what would be in the future,
especially about the coming Saviour of the world. They announced the will of
God, taught the people true faith and piety, and performed various signs and
They exposed the idolatry of the Hebrews and
called them to repent. Some of them preached only orally, and others, in
addition, left behind sacred books, written by them under the inspiration of
the Holy Spirit.
The most famous of the prophets living in the
Israelite kingdom were, Elijah, Elisha and Jonah, and of the prophets living in
the Judean kingdom, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Micah, Ezekiel and Daniel.
The Prophet Elijah.
The Prophet Elijah lived during the reign of the
impious Israelite King Ahab, who worshipped the idol Baal and also forced the
people to do so. Elijah came to Ahab and in the name of God announced to him,
‘‘Because of your godlessness, there will be neither dew nor rain during these
years except by the word of my mouth."
So it came to pass. A terrible drought began. Even
the grass died and there was a famine. Elijah, by God’s will, settled in the
desert by a stream where ravens brought him bread and meat, and he drank the
water from the stream. When the stream dried up, God ordered the Prophet to go
to the pagan town of Zarephath in Sidon to a poor widow and live with her. This
widow, who lived with her son, had only one handful of flour and a little oil.
Going to Zarephath, Elijah told her to bake bread for him and promised that the
flour and oil would not diminish as long as the Lord did not send rain to the
earth. The woman trusted the Prophet of God and did as he told her, her flour
and oil did not diminish. Soon this widow’s son fell ill and died. The Prophet
Elijah for three days prayed to God for him and the boy came back to life.
The drought lasted for three and a half years.
Elijah, at God’s command, again came to Ahab and suggested to him that he
gather the Israelite people on Mt. Carmel. When Ahab had assembled the people,
Elijah said, "You are satisfied with being godless. Become acquainted with
the true God. Come, let us offer sacrifice. You, to Baal, and I, to the Lord
God, but let there be no fire put under it. Whoever sends down fire from Heaven
to light the sacrifice, that will be the true God." All agreed.
The priests of Baal were the first to bring
sacrifice. They prepared an altar, put a calf on it and for a whole day hopped
around and cried out around it, "Baal, Baal, hear us!" But there was
no answer. Evening came. Then Elijah prepared an altar, dug a ditch around it,
put firewood and the calf on the altar and told them to pour water on the
sacrifice, so much so that the ditch was filled. Then Elijah turned to the Lord
with prayer, immediately fire from the Lord came down from Heaven, and burned
not only the firewood and the sacrifice, but also obliterated the water which
filled the ditch and the stones of which the altar was built. All the people
fell on the ground in fear and cried out, "The Lord is the true God; the
Lord is the true God!"
After this Elijah went up to the summit of the
mountain and began to pray for rain. A wind blew from the mountain, revealing
in the skies great clouds, and heavy rain began to fall.
Despite the miracles, Queen Jezebel, wife of Ahab,
continued to persecute Elijah for putting all the priests of Baal to death.
Elijah hid in the desert since they sought to kill him. It seemed to him that
he was the only believer in God and he lost heart. But the Lord reassured him,
and appeared to him when Elijah spent the night in a cave on Mt. Horeb.
The voice of God said to him, "Elijah! Come
and stand on the mountain in the sight of God." There blew a strong wind,
which tore up the mountains and shattered the rocks, but the Lord was not in
this wind. Then, there was an earthquake, but the Lord was also not in the
earthquake. Then fire appeared, but the Lord was not in the fire. After all
this there was the blowing of a calm wind, and in this was the Lord.
The Lord consoled Elijah and said that among the
Israelites there were still 7,000 men who did not worship idols, and that after
him He would raise up among them the Prophet Elisha, whom He commanded Elijah
This appearance of the Lord showed Elijah that the
Lord not only is punishing and stern Judge, but a merciful Father. It also
prefigured the coming to earth of Jesus Christ, Who would come not to judge and
punish, but to forgive and save people.
Elijah, in accordance with God’s direction,
anointed Elisha as a prophet, who then became his disciple. Once when they were
together, Elijah said to Elisha, "Ask what I shall do for thee before I am
taken away from thee,"
Elisha replied, "I pray thee, let a double
portion of thy spirit be upon me."
Elijah said, ‘Thou hast asked a hard thing;
nevertheless, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, then shall it be so
unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so." They went on further. Suddenly
there appeared a chariot of fire with horses of fire, and Elijah was taken up
into Heaven in a whirlwind.
Elisha, seeing this, cried, "My father, my
father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof!"
These words of the Prophet Elisha meant that the
holy Prophet Elijah, by his prayers, protected the kingdom
of Israel from its enemies better than all the Israelite forces, the
chariots and horses. At this time the mantle, that is, the outer garment of
Elijah, fell at Elisha’s feet. Elisha lifted this up and with it received the
double gift of prophecy.
I Kings, chaps. 16-19; II Kings, chaps. 1, 2:1-15.
The Prophet Elisha.
The holy Prophet Elisha was the son of a farmer
named Shaphat (I Kings 19:19). God made the Prophet famous by many miracles.
After Elijah was taken up into Heaven Elisha had
to cross the river Jordan. He struck the water with the mantle of Elijah. The
water parted, and he crossed on the dry river bed.
When Elisha came to the city of Jericho, the
inhabitants of the city said to him, "Our water is bad, and because of
this the ground is barren." Elisha threw salt into the spring of water and
the water became tasty and healthful.
Near the city of Bethel, Elisha saw children
coming from the town who began to laugh at him and cry out, "Go away, thou
baldhead, go away." He told them that for this disrespect to an elder they
would be punished by God. At that moment two bears came out of the forest and
tore to pieces forty-two of the children.
Once a poor widow came to Elisha. She was crying
and said to him, ‘My husband is dead and left many debts. The creditor came to
take my two sons to be servants."
"Tell me what hast thou in the house?"
The woman replied, "Nothing, save a pot of
Elisha said to her, "Go, borrow vessels for
thyself from all thy neighbors, as many empty vessels as you can. And when thou
art come in, thou shalt shut the door upon thee and upon thy sons, and thou
shalt pour the oil into all those vessels."
The woman did this. The oil was poured until all
the vessels were filled. She sold the oil, paid all the debts and there still
remained enough money for her sons and her to live.
In the city of Shunem, a certain rich woman had a son. It came to pass that her
son suddenly fell ill and died the same day. She went to Elisha and in despair
fell at his feet. The Prophet came into the house where the child lay and for a
long time prayed to God. The child came back to life.
The commander of the armies of the King of Syria,
Naaman, was sick with leprosy. No one could cure him of this illness. Naaman’s
wife had a captive Jewish girl as a servant. Seeing the sufferings of her
master she said, "O that my lord were before the Prophet of God in
Samaria; then he would recover him from his leprosy."
Naaman went to the Prophet Elisha in the Israelite
land. Elisha sent a servant to tell Naaman that he should wash seven times in
the Jordan River. Naaman did as the Prophet ordered him and immediately became
well. With rich gifts he returned to Elisha, but the Prophet took nothing from
When Naaman went home, Elisha’s servant Gehazi
caught up with him and took from him, in the name of the Prophet, silver and
some clothes. Having hidden what he had received, Gehazi came to Elisha.
"Whence comest thou, Gehazi?" Elisha asked him.
"Thy servant went no where," replied
Then the Prophet exposed his lie and said to him,
"The leprosy of Naaman, besides his silver, shall cleave to thee."
And Gehazi went out from Elisha, covered with leprosy.
Even after his death the Prophet Elisha performed
a miracle. In the year after his death, a man was being carried past the cave
in which Elisha was buried. But seeing their enemies, the men who were burying
him hurriedly threw the dead man into the Prophet’s cave. On falling, as soon
as he touched Elisha’s bones, he came to life and arose.
II Kings, chaps. 2-10; 13:1-21.
The Prophet Jonah.
The Prophet Jonah lived after the Prophet Elisha.
Once the Lord ordered him to go to the pagan city of Nineveh, the capital of
the Assyrian empire, and to proclaim to the inhabitants of this city that the
Lord would destroy them if they did not repent. But Jonah did not want to go
and preach to the enemy of the Israelite people and did not obey the voice of
God. He went on a ship which was heading for another country. But suddenly at
sea a fierce storm arose. The ship was threatened with destruction, and
everyone on it became frightened. The crew decided to cast lots to find out
what had brought them such a calamity. The lots fell on Jonah. Jonah confessed
his sin and said, "Yes, I have sinned in the face of the Lord! Cast me
into the sea, and the sea shall be calm." When they threw him into the
sea, the sea became quiet. By the will of God, a huge fish swallowed the
Prophet, which in the Bible is called a huge whale. Jonah was in the belly of
the whale for three days and three nights, praying to God for forgiveness. Here
God revealed his wondrous power in a special way. He preserved him unharmed in
the belly of the whale and forgave him.
In three days the whale threw up the Prophet,
alive, onto the shore. After this Jonah went to Nineveh to fulfill God’s will.
A whole day he walked through the city and preached to everyone, saying,
"In forty days, Nineveh shall be overthrown!" The inhabitants
believed his words. They, together with the King, imposed a fast on themselves,
began to pray and repent of their sins, and the Lord forgave them.
But Jonah murmured against such mercy of God and
asked that God take his life. He probably thought that now he would be
considered a false prophet.
This time the Lord brought Jonah to his senses.
One night, in front of the tent that Jonah set up for himself near Nineveh, a
big plant grew up and shaded him from the sun’s intense heat. The next day
though, a worm gnawed at this plant, and it dried up. Jonah very much grieved
and felt sorry for the withered plant.
Then the Lord said to him, "Thou hadst pity
on the plant, for which thou hast not suffered, neither didst thou cause it to
grow. And shall not I spare Nineveh, the great city, in which dwell more than
six score thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and
their left hand; and also much cattle?"
The three-day stay of the Prophet Jonah in the
belly of the whale and his miraculous salvation was a prefiguration of the
three-day death and resurrection of Christ the Saviour.
Book of Jonah.
Discussion about Jonah’s
Three-day Stay in the Whale’s Belly.
"Superficial and unbelieving critics,"
says scholar Arthur Hook, "believe there are many obstacles to accepting
that Jonah was in fact swallowed by a whale and that the Prophet spent three
days and three nights in its belly and then was vomited out onto dry land.
"In the first place, not one person who
believes in Christ can doubt what took place with the Prophet Jonah, for Christ
Himself put the seal on this disputed subject when He said, For as Jonah was
three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be
three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (Matt. 12:40). Here Christ eliminates, at least as far as
it concerned His disciples, the idea that the Book of the Prophet Jonah is an
allegory, as critics like to assume. If it is said only in an allegorical sense
that Jonah was in the whale’s belly, then the conclusion follows that Christ’s
being in the heart of the earth in the course of three days and three nights
also has only an allegorical significance. Here we have again an example of how
the denial of the Old Testament paves the way for a denial of Christ Himself
and His word"
To deny historicity to the Prophet Jonah is
equivalent to a denial of all Scripture and this means repudiation of the
faith. How can a person, after the innumerable failures of so-called
‘scientific objections’ be against the Bible? How many times have the
refutations and sneers at the Bible by ‘the wise men of this age’ been turned
back against them themselves. In fact, a simple acquaintance with the text of
the original and some scientific knowledge give us the answer in many cases.
Everyone well knows that the text of the Bible was
written in Hebrew. In Hebrew a whale is called tannin. In the
Bible, however, the sea animal which swallowed Jonah is not called tannin,
but dag, which means "big fish" or "monster of the
For more than 1500 years the holy Church has
testified to this by calling this creature which swallowed Jonah a "sea
beast." For example, in the Irmos of the sixth ode of Friday’s Canon of
Matins, eighth tone, it is said, "Jonah, in the womb of a sea beast,
stretches out his hands in the form of a Cross, thus clearly foreshadowing the
saving Passion." In the sixth ode of the Canon of Matins for Tuesday,
fifth tone, it is written, "As Thou hast saved the Prophet from the beast,
O Lord, so, I pray, lead me up from the depths of the unconquered
Science has pointed out to us that there exists a
wide variety of types of whales. Thus, for example, there is a species of
whales which have forty-four teeth in the lower jaw and reach 60-65 feet in
length. However, they have a very small gullet, which may have given a basis
for contending that Jonah could not be swallowed by a whale.
There is another form of whale, the
"bottle-nosed" whale, which has a beak. Although it is a small whale,
reaching up to thirty feet long, it has a rather large gullet and is fully
capable of swallowing a man; but the Prophet could not have been swallowed by
such a whale because it chews food and has teeth.
There are whales which do not have teeth, but are
provided with "whalebones." Among such a type of whale there are
whales which are called "fin-backs." These whales can be up to 88
feet long. The stomach of such a whale has from four to six chambers or
compartments, each of which could easily contain a small group of people. This
type of whale breathes air and has on its head a reserve air chamber which appears
with the dilation of the nasal cavities. Before swallowing a very large object,
the finback whale pushes it through to this chamber. If it happens that
something too large is found in the head of this whale, then it will swim to
the nearest land, lie in the shallow water and disgorge its burden.
The scholar Dr. Ranson Garvey testifies that his
friend, in weight two-hundred pounds, crawled from the mouth of a dead whale
into this air chamber. This scholar points out that a dog that fell from the
side of a whale boat, after six days was found in the head of a whale, alive.
From this account, it is evident that Jonah could remain in the ‘womb,’ that
is, in the air chamber of such a whale, for three days and three nights and
stay alive. The space in this chamber is equal to 686 cubic feet. Thus, from
scientific data we can see that Jonah could have been swallowed by a whale.
Frank Bullen, the famous author of the work, The
Swimming of the Sperm Whale, established that the sperm whale often, when
it is dying, disgorges the contents of its stomach.
But the Biblical word dag refers to
a "big fish." From this we can conclude that Jonah really was
swallowed by a marine creature, by a huge fish. In that case we must consider
the fish called "whale shark" or "bone shark."
This name, "whale shark," comes from the
fact that it does not have teeth. The whale shark reaches seventy feet in
length, and filters its food through huge plates in its mouth. This shark has a
stomach large enough for a man to fit inside.
Concerning the fact that Jonah spent three days
and three nights in the stomach of a big marine creature and stayed alive, we
can first of all say, "With God everything is possible." It is
interesting to recall the story in Reader’s Digest about a sailor swallowed by
a whale-shark. In 48 hours the shark was killed. When the whale-shark was
opened up, imagine the surprise of all those who had gathered when they found a
sailor alive, though in an unconscious state, after having been swallowed by
this creature. In addition, the sailor had no after-effects of his stay in the
stomach of the whale-shark except a loss of hair and a few blisters on his
skin. He related that only fear gave him no peace while living in the whale’s
stomach. When he had come to consciousness and understood where he was, he
again immediately lost consciousness.
"Recently," writes Fr. I.S., "in
the Hawaiian islands Japanese fishermen killed a big white shark. In its
stomach they found a full skeleton of a man. It turned out that this was a
soldier, entered in the list of deserters, in the clothes of the style of the
North American army."
Thus we see that Jonah could have been swallowed
by a big fish even without violating the natural laws of nature. All nonsense
and contradiction disappear. Surely and invariably the Word of God can never be
found to be in contradiction with scientific truth. This was also established
by the father of Russian science, Lomonosov.
It is necessary for us believers to say that it is
quite obvious that the events which happened to the Prophet Jonah were
undoubtedly the work of the power of God, Who, as Creator of the very laws of
nature, has a free will to control them, when He finds it necessary, according
to His all-powerful providential action.
The scholar and genius Pascal said,
"The last step of reason consists in admitting the existence of many
things which are outside the limits of our knowledge, and if reason does not
accept this knowledge, it is absolutely weak." Robert Mayer said,
"If superficial minds show off by denying the existence of something
higher in the super-material and supersensually perceived world, this pitiful
denial by a few minds cannot be blamed on science."
(Compiled from the book The Truth Of Biblical
Miracles, A. Hook and Prophet Jonah And the Small Gullet Of the Whale
by Archpriest Paul Kalinovitch.).
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